Class representing a document page. A page object is created by Document.load_page() or, equivalently, via indexing the document like doc[n] - it has no independent constructor.

There is a parent-child relationship between a document and its pages. If the document is closed or deleted, all page objects (and their respective children, too) in existence will become unusable (“orphaned”): If a page property or method is being used, an exception is raised.

Several page methods have a Document counterpart for convenience. At the end of this chapter you will find a synopsis.

Modifying Pages

Changing page properties and adding or changing page content is available for PDF documents only.

In a nutshell, this is what you can do with PyMuPDF:

  • Modify page rotation and the visible part (“cropbox”) of the page.
  • Insert images, other PDF pages, text and simple geometrical objects.
  • Add annotations and form fields.


Methods require coordinates (points, rectangles) to put content in desired places. Please be aware that since v1.17.0 these coordinates must always be provided relative to the unrotated page. The reverse is also true: expcept Page.rect, resp. Page.bound() (both reflect when the page is rotated), all coordinates returned by methods and attributes pertain to the unrotated page.

So the returned value of e.g. Page.get_image_bbox() will not change if you do a Page.set_rotation(). The same is true for coordinates returned by Page.get_text(), annotation rectangles, and so on. If you want to find out, where an object is located in rotated coordinates, multiply the coordinates with Page.rotation_matrix. There also is its inverse, Page.derotation_matrix, which you can use when interfacing with other readers, which may behave differently in this respect.


If you add or update annotations, links or form fields on the page and immediately afterwards need to work with them (i.e. without leaving the page), you should reload the page using Document.reload_page() before referring to these new or updated items.

This ensures all your changes have been fully applied to PDF structures, so can safely create Pixmaps or successfully iterate over annotations, links and form fields.

Method / Attribute Short Description
Page.add_caret_annot() PDF only: add a caret annotation
Page.add_circle_annot() PDF only: add a circle annotation
Page.add_file_annot() PDF only: add a file attachment annotation
Page.add_freetext_annot() PDF only: add a text annotation
Page.add_highlight_annot() PDF only: add a “highlight” annotation
Page.add_ink_annot() PDF only: add an ink annotation
Page.add_line_annot() PDF only: add a line annotation
Page.add_polygon_annot() PDF only: add a polygon annotation
Page.add_polyline_annot() PDF only: add a multi-line annotation
Page.add_rect_annot() PDF only: add a rectangle annotation
Page.add_redact_annot() PDF only: add a redaction annotation
Page.add_squiggly_annot() PDF only: add a “squiggly” annotation
Page.add_stamp_annot() PDF only: add a “rubber stamp” annotation
Page.add_strikeout_annot() PDF only: add a “strike-out” annotation
Page.add_text_annot() PDF only: add a comment
Page.add_underline_annot() PDF only: add an “underline” annotation
Page.add_widget() PDF only: add a PDF Form field
Page.annot_names() PDF only: a list of annotation and widget names
Page.annots() return a generator over the annots on the page
Page.apply_redactions() PDF olny: process the redactions of the page
Page.bound() rectangle of the page
Page.delete_annot() PDF only: delete an annotation
Page.delete_link() PDF only: delete a link
Page.delete_widget() PDF only: delete a widget / field
Page.draw_bezier() PDF only: draw a cubic Bezier curve
Page.draw_circle() PDF only: draw a circle
Page.draw_curve() PDF only: draw a special Bezier curve
Page.draw_line() PDF only: draw a line
Page.draw_oval() PDF only: draw an oval / ellipse
Page.draw_polyline() PDF only: connect a point sequence
Page.draw_quad() PDF only: draw a quad
Page.draw_rect() PDF only: draw a rectangle
Page.draw_sector() PDF only: draw a circular sector
Page.draw_squiggle() PDF only: draw a squiggly line
Page.draw_zigzag() PDF only: draw a zig-zagged line
Page.get_drawings() get list of the draw commands contained in the page
Page.get_fonts() PDF only: get list of referenced fonts
Page.get_image_bbox() PDF only: get bbox and matrix of embedded image
Page.get_image_info() get list of meta information for all used images
Page.get_image_rects() PDF only: improved version of Page.get_image_bbox()
Page.get_images() PDF only: get list of referenced images
Page.get_label() PDF only: return the label of the page
Page.get_links() get all links
Page.get_pixmap() create a page image in raster format
Page.get_svg_image() create a page image in SVG format
Page.get_text() extract the page’s text
Page.get_textbox() extract text contained in a rectangle
Page.get_textpage_ocr() create a TextPage with OCR for the page
Page.get_textpage() create a TextPage for the page
Page.get_xobjects() PDF only: get list of referenced xobjects
Page.insert_font() PDF only: insert a font for use by the page
Page.insert_image() PDF only: insert an image
Page.insert_link() PDF only: insert a link
Page.insert_text() PDF only: insert text
Page.insert_textbox() PDF only: insert a text box
Page.links() return a generator of the links on the page
Page.load_annot() PDF only: load a specific annotation
Page.load_links() return the first link on a page
Page.new_shape() PDF only: create a new Shape
Page.search_for() search for a string
Page.set_artbox() PDF only: modify /ArtBox
Page.set_bleedbox() PDF only: modify /BleedBox
Page.set_cropbox() PDF only: modify the cropbox (visible page)
Page.set_mediabox() PDF only: modify /MediaBox
Page.set_rotation() PDF only: set page rotation
Page.set_trimbox() PDF only: modify /TrimBox
Page.show_pdf_page() PDF only: display PDF page image
Page.update_link() PDF only: modify a link
Page.widgets() return a generator over the fields on the page
Page.write_text() write one or more TextWriter objects
Page.cropbox_position displacement of the cropbox
Page.cropbox the page’s cropbox
Page.artbox the page’s /ArtBox
Page.bleedbox the page’s /BleedBox
Page.trimbox the page’s /TrimBox
Page.derotation_matrix PDF only: get coordinates in unrotated page space
Page.first_annot first Annot on the page
Page.first_link first Link on the page
Page.first_widget first widget (form field) on the page
Page.mediabox_size bottom-right point of mediabox
Page.mediabox the page’s mediabox
Page.number page number
Page.parent owning document object
Page.rect rectangle of the page
Page.rotation_matrix PDF only: get coordinates in rotated page space
Page.rotation PDF only: page rotation
Page.transformation_matrix PDF only: translate between PDF and MuPDF space
Page.xref PDF only: page xref

Class API

class Page

Determine the rectangle of the page. Same as property Page.rect below. For PDF documents this usually also coincides with mediabox and cropbox, but not always. For example, if the page is rotated, then this is reflected by this method – the Page.cropbox however will not change.

Return type:Rect

(New in version 1.16.0)

PDF only: Add a caret icon. A caret annotation is a visual symbol normally used to indicate the presence of text edits on the page.

Parameters:point (point_like) – the top left point of a 20 x 20 rectangle containing the MuPDF-provided icon.
Return type:Annot
Returns:the created annotation. Stroke color blue = (0, 0, 1), no fill color support.
add_text_annot(point, text, icon="Note")

PDF only: Add a comment icon (“sticky note”) with accompanying text. Only the icon is visible, the accompanying text is hidden and can be visualized by many PDF viewers by hovering the mouse over the symbol.

  • point (point_like) – the top left point of a 20 x 20 rectangle containing the MuPDF-provided “note” icon.
  • text (str) – the commentary text. This will be shown on double clicking or hovering over the icon. May contain any Latin characters.
  • icon (str) – (new in version 1.16.0) choose one of “Note” (default), “Comment”, “Help”, “Insert”, “Key”, “NewParagraph”, “Paragraph” as the visual symbol for the embodied text [4].
Return type:



the created annotation. Stroke color yellow = (1, 1, 0), no fill color support.

add_freetext_annot(rect, text, fontsize=12, fontname="helv", text_color=0, fill_color=1, rotate=0, align=TEXT_ALIGN_LEFT)

PDF only: Add text in a given rectangle.

  • rect (rect_like) – the rectangle into which the text should be inserted. Text is automatically wrapped to a new line at box width. Lines not fitting into the box will be invisible.
  • text (str) – the text. (New in v1.17.0) May contain any mixture of Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Chinese, Japanese and Korean characters. The respective required font is automatically determined.
  • fontsize (float) – the font size. Default is 12.
  • fontname (str) – the font name. Default is “Helv”. Accepted alternatives are “Cour”, “TiRo”, “ZaDb” and “Symb”. The name may be abbreviated to the first two characters, like “Co” for “Cour”. Lower case is also accepted. (Changed in v1.16.0) Bold or italic variants of the fonts are no longer accepted. A user-contributed script provides a circumvention for this restriction – see section Using Buttons and JavaScript in chapter Collection of Recipes. (New in v1.17.0) The actual font to use is now determined on a by-character level, and all required fonts (or sub-fonts) are automatically included. Therefore, you should rarely ever need to care about this parameter and let it default (except you insist on a serifed font for your non-CJK text parts).
  • text_color (sequence,float) – (new in version 1.16.0) the text color. Default is black.
  • fill_color (sequence,float) – (new in version 1.16.0) the fill color. Default is white.
  • align (int) – (new in version 1.17.0) text alignment, one of TEXT_ALIGN_LEFT, TEXT_ALIGN_CENTER, TEXT_ALIGN_RIGHT - justify is not supported.
  • rotate (int) – the text orientation. Accepted values are 0, 90, 270, invalid entries are set to zero.
Return type:



the created annotation. Color properties can only be changed using special parameters of Annot.update(). There, you can also set a border color different from the text color.

add_file_annot(pos, buffer, filename, ufilename=None, desc=None, icon="PushPin")

PDF only: Add a file attachment annotation with a “PushPin” icon at the specified location.

  • pos (point_like) – the top-left point of a 18x18 rectangle containing the MuPDF-provided “PushPin” icon.
  • buffer (bytes,bytearray,BytesIO) –

    the data to be stored (actual file content, any data, etc.).

    Changed in version 1.14.13 io.BytesIO is now also supported.

  • filename (str) – the filename to associate with the data.
  • ufilename (str) – the optional PDF unicode version of filename. Defaults to filename.
  • desc (str) – an optional description of the file. Defaults to filename.
  • icon (str) – (new in version 1.16.0) choose one of “PushPin” (default), “Graph”, “Paperclip”, “Tag” as the visual symbol for the attached data [4].
Return type:



the created annotation. Stroke color yellow = (1, 1, 0), no fill color support.


PDF only: Add a “freehand” scribble annotation.

Parameters:list (sequence) – a list of one or more lists, each containing point_like items. Each item in these sublists is interpreted as a Point through which a connecting line is drawn. Separate sublists thus represent separate drawing lines.
Return type:Annot
Returns:the created annotation in default appearance black =(0, 0, 0),line width 1. No fill color support.
add_line_annot(p1, p2)

PDF only: Add a line annotation.

  • p1 (point_like) – the starting point of the line.
  • p2 (point_like) – the end point of the line.
Return type:



the created annotation. It is drawn with line (stroke) color red = (1, 0, 0) and line width 1. No fill color support. The annot rectangle is automatically created to contain both points, each one surrounded by a circle of radius 3 * line width to make room for any line end symbols.


PDF only: Add a rectangle, resp. circle annotation.

Parameters:rect (rect_like) – the rectangle in which the circle or rectangle is drawn, must be finite and not empty. If the rectangle is not equal-sided, an ellipse is drawn.
Return type:Annot
Returns:the created annotation. It is drawn with line (stroke) color red = (1, 0, 0), line width 1, fill color is supported.
add_redact_annot(quad, text=None, fontname=None, fontsize=11, align=TEXT_ALIGN_LEFT, fill=(1, 1, 1), text_color=(0, 0, 0), cross_out=True)

PDF only: (new in version 1.16.11) Add a redaction annotation. A redaction annotation identifies content to be removed from the document. Adding such an annotation is the first of two steps. It makes visible what will be removed in the subsequent step, Page.apply_redactions().

  • quad (quad_like,rect_like) – specifies the (rectangular) area to be removed which is always equal to the annotation rectangle. This may be a rect_like or quad_like object. If a quad is specified, then the envelopping rectangle is taken.
  • text (str) – (New in v1.16.12) text to be placed in the rectangle after applying the redaction (and thus removing old content).
  • fontname (str) –

    (New in v1.16.12) the font to use when text is given, otherwise ignored. The same rules apply as for Page.insert_textbox() – which is the method Page.apply_redactions() internally invokes. The replacement text will be vertically centered, if this is one of the CJK or PDF Base 14 Fonts.


    • For an existing font of the page, use its reference name as fontname (this is item[4] of its entry in Page.get_fonts()).
    • For a new, non-builtin font, proceed as follows:
      page.insert_text(point,  # anywhere, but outside all redaction rectangles
          "somthing",  # some non-empty string
          fontname="newname",  # new, unused reference name
          fontfile="...",  # desired font file
          render_mode=3,  # makes the text invisible
      page.add_redact_annot(..., fontname="newname")
  • fontsize (float) – (New in v1.16.12) the fontsize to use for the replacing text. If the text is too large to fit, several insertion attempts will be made, gradually reducing the fontsize to no less than 4. If then the text will still not fit, no text insertion will take place at all.
  • align (int) – (New in v1.16.12) the horizontal alignment for the replacing text. See insert_textbox() for available values. The vertical alignment is (approximately) centered if a PDF built-in font is used (CJK or PDF Base 14 Fonts).
  • fill (sequence) – (New in v1.16.12) the fill color of the rectangle after applying the redaction. The default is white = (1, 1, 1), which is also taken if None is specified. (Changed in v1.16.13) To suppress a fill color alltogether, specify False. In this cases the rectangle remains transparent.
  • text_color (sequence) – (New in v1.16.12) the color of the replacing text. Default is black = (0, 0, 0).
  • cross_out (bool) – (new in v1.17.2) add two diagonal lines to the annotation rectangle.
Return type:



the created annotation. (Changed in v1.17.2) Its standard appearance looks like a red rectangle (no fill color), optionally showing two diagonal lines. Colors, line width, dashing, opacity and blend mode can now be set and applied via Annot.update() like with other annotations.


PDF only: Add an annotation consisting of lines which connect the given points. A Polygon’s first and last points are automatically connected, which does not happen for a PolyLine. The rectangle is automatically created as the smallest rectangle containing the points, each one surrounded by a circle of radius 3 (= 3 * line width). The following shows a ‘PolyLine’ that has been modified with colors and line ends.

Parameters:points (list) – a list of point_like objects.
Return type:Annot
Returns:the created annotation. It is drawn with line color black, line width 1 no fill color but fill color support. Use methods of Annot to make any changes to achieve something like this:
add_underline_annot(quads=None, start=None, stop=None, clip=None)
add_strikeout_annot(quads=None, start=None, stop=None, clip=None)
add_squiggly_annot(quads=None, start=None, stop=None, clip=None)
add_highlight_annot(quads=None, start=None, stop=None, clip=None)

PDF only: These annotations are normally used for marking text which has previously been somehow located (for example via Page.search_for()). But this is not required: you are free to “mark” just anything.

Standard (stroke only – no fill color support) colors are chosen per annotation type: yellow for highlighting, red for striking out, green for underlining, and magenta for wavy underlining.

All these four methods convert the arguments into a list of Quad objects. The annotation rectangle is then calculated to envelop all these quadrilaterals.


search_for() delivers a list of either Rect or Quad objects. Such a list can be directly used as an argument for these annotation types and will deliver one common annotation for all occurrences of the search string:

>>> # prefer quads=True in text searching for annotations!
>>> quads = page.search_for("pymupdf", quads=True)
>>> page.add_highlight_annot(quads)


Obviously, text marker annotations need to know what is the top, the bottom, the left, and the right side of the area(s) to be marked. If the arguments are quads, this information is given by the sequence of the quad points. In contrast, a rectangle delivers much less information – this is illustrated by the fact, that 4! = 24 different quads can be constructed with the four corners of a reactangle.

Therefore, we strongly recommend to use the quads option for text searches, to ensure correct annotations. A similar consideration applies to marking text spans extracted with the “dict” / “rawdict” options of Page.get_text(). For more details on how to compute quadrilaterals in this case, see section “How to Mark Non-horizontal Text” of Collection of Recipes.

  • quads (rect_like,quad_like,list,tuple) – (Changed in v1.14.20) the location(s) – rectangle(s) or quad(s) – to be marked. A list or tuple must consist of rect_like or quad_like items (or even a mixture of either). Every item must be finite, convex and not empty (as applicable). (Changed in v1.16.14) Set this parameter to None if you want to use the following arguments.
  • start (point_like) – (New in v1.16.14) start text marking at this point. Defaults to the top-left point of clip.
  • stop (point_like) – (New in v1.16.14) stop text marking at this point. Defaults to the bottom-right point of clip.
  • clip (rect_like) – (New in v1.16.14) only consider text lines intersecting this area. Defaults to the page rectangle.
Return type:

Annot or (changed in v1.16.14) None


the created annotation. (Changed in v1.16.14) If quads is an empty list, no annotation is created.


Starting with v1.16.14 you can use parameters start, stop and clip to highlight consecutive lines between the points start and stop. Make use of clip to further reduce the selected line bboxes and thus deal with e.g. multi-column pages. The following multi-line highlight on a page with three text columnbs was created by specifying the two red points and setting clip accordingly.

add_stamp_annot(rect, stamp=0)

PDF only: Add a “rubber stamp” like annotation to e.g. indicate the document’s intended use (“DRAFT”, “CONFIDENTIAL”, etc.).

  • rect (rect_like) – rectangle where to place the annotation.
  • stamp (int) – id number of the stamp text. For available stamps see Stamp Annotation Icons.


  • The stamp’s text and its border line will automatically be sized and be put horizontally and vertically centered in the given rectangle. Annot.rect is automatically calculated to fit the given width and will usually be smaller than this parameter.
  • The font chosen is “Times Bold” and the text will be upper case.
  • The appearance can be changed using Annot.set_opacity() and by setting the “stroke” color (no “fill” color supported).
  • This can be used to create watermark images: on a temporary PDF page create a stamp annotation with a low opacity value, make a pixmap from it with alpha=True (and potentially also rotate it), discard the temporary PDF page and use the pixmap with insert_image() for your target PDF.

PDF only: Add a PDF Form field (“widget”) to a page. This also turns the PDF into a Form PDF. Because of the large amount of different options available for widgets, we have developed a new class Widget, which contains the possible PDF field attributes. It must be used for both, form field creation and updates.

Parameters:widget (Widget) – a Widget object which must have been created upfront.
Returns:a widget annotation.

PDF only: Delete annotation from the page and return the next one.

Changed in version 1.16.6 The removal will now include any bound ‘Popup’ or response annotations and related objects.

Parameters:annot (Annot) – the annotation to be deleted.
Return type:Annot
Returns:the annotation following the deleted one. Please remember that physical removal requires saving to a new file with garbage > 0.

(New in v1.18.4)

PDF only: Delete field from the page and return the next one.

Parameters:widget (Widget) – the widget to be deleted.
Return type:Widget
Returns:the widget following the deleted one. Please remember that physical removal requires saving to a new file with garbage > 0.

(New in version 1.16.11)

PDF only: Remove all text content contained in any redaction rectangle.

(Changed in v1.16.12) The previous mark parameter is gone. Instead, the respective rectangles are filled with the individual fill color of each redaction annotation. If a text was given in the annotation, then insert_textbox() is invoked to insert it, using parameters provided with the redaction.

This method applies and then deletes all redactions from the page.

Parameters:images (int) – (new in v1.18.0) how to redact overlapping images. The default (2) blanks out overlapping pixels. PDF_REDACT_IMAGE_NONE (0) ignores, and PDF_REDACT_IMAGE_REMOVE (1) completely removes all overlapping images.
Returns:True if at least one redaction annotation has been processed, False otherwise.


  • Text contained in a redaction rectangle will be physically removed from the page (assuming with a suitable garbage option) and will no longer appear in e.g. text extractions or anywhere else. All redaction annotations will also be removed. Other annotations are unaffected.

  • All overlapping links will be removed. If the rectangle of the link was covering text, then only the overlapping part of the text is being removed. Similar applies to images covered by link rectangles.

  • (Changed in v1.18.0) The overlapping parts of images will be blanked-out for default option PDF_REDACT_IMAGE_PIXELS. Option 0 does not touch any images and 1 will remove any image with an overlap. Please be aware that there is a bug for option PDF_REDACT_IMAGE_PIXELS = 2: transparent images will be incorrectly handled!

  • For option images=PDF_REDACT_IMAGE_REMOVE only this page’s references to the images are removed - not necessarily the images themselves. Images are completely removed from the file only, if no longer referenced at all (assuming suitable garbage collection options).

  • For option images=PDF_REDACT_IMAGE_PIXELS a new image of format PNG is created, which the page will use in place of the original one. The original image is not deleted or replaced as part of this process, so other pages may still show the original. In addition, the new, modified PNG image currently is stored uncompressed. Do keep these aspects in mind when choosing the right garbage collection method and compression options during save.

  • Text removal is done by character: A character is removed if its bbox has a non-empty overlap with a redaction rectangle (changed in MuPDF v1.17). Depending on the font properties and / or the chosen line height, deletion may occur for undesired text parts. Using Tools.set_small_glyph_heights() with a True argument before text search may help to prevent this.

  • Redactions are a simple way to replace single words in a PDF, or to just physically remove them. Locate the word “secret” using some text extraction or search method and insert a redaction using “xxxxxx” as replacement text for each occurrence.

    • Be wary if the replacement is longer than the original – this may lead to an awkward appearance, line breaks or no new text at all.
    • For a number of reasons, the new text may not exactly be positioned on the same line like the old one – especially true if the replacement font was not one of CJK or PDF Base 14 Fonts.

PDF only: Delete the specified link from the page. The parameter must be an original item of get_links() (see below). The reason for this is the dictionary’s “xref” key, which identifies the PDF object to be deleted.

Parameters:linkdict (dict) – the link to be deleted.

PDF only: Insert a new link on this page. The parameter must be a dictionary of format as provided by get_links() (see below).

Parameters:linkdict (dict) – the link to be inserted.

PDF only: Modify the specified link. The parameter must be a (modified) original item of get_links() (see below). The reason for this is the dictionary’s “xref” key, which identifies the PDF object to be changed.

Parameters:linkdict (dict) – the link to be modified.


If updating / inserting a URI link ("kind": LINK_URI), please make sure to start the value for the "uri" key with a disambiguating string like "http://", "https://", "file://", "ftp://", "mailto:", etc. Otherwise – depending on your browser or other “consumer” software – unexpected default assumptions may lead to unwanted behaviours.


(New in v1.18.6)

PDF only: Return the label for the page.

Return type:str
Returns:the label string like “vii” for Roman numbering or “” if not defined.

Retrieves all links of a page.

Return type:list
Returns:A list of dictionaries. For a description of the dictionary entries see below. Always use this or the Page.links() method if you intend to make changes to the links of a page.

(New in version 1.16.4)

Return a generator over the page’s links. The results equal the entries of Page.get_links().

Parameters:kinds (sequence) – a sequence of integers to down-select to one or more link kinds. Default is all links. Example: kinds=(fitz.LINK_GOTO,) will only return internal links.
Return type:generator
Returns:an entry of Page.get_links() for each iteration.

(New in version 1.16.4)

Return a generator over the page’s annotations.

Parameters:types (sequence) – a sequence of integers to down-select to one or annotation types. Default is all annotations. Example: types=(fitz.PDF_ANNOT_FREETEXT, fitz.PDF_ANNOT_TEXT) will only return ‘FreeText’ and ‘Text’ annotations.
Return type:generator
Returns:an Annot for each iteration.

(New in version 1.16.4)

Return a generator over the page’s form fields.

Parameters:types (sequence) – a sequence of integers to down-select to one or more widget types. Default is all form fields. Example: types=(fitz.PDF_WIDGET_TYPE_TEXT,) will only return ‘Text’ fields.
Return type:generator
Returns:a Widget for each iteration.
write_text(rect=None, writers=None, overlay=True, color=None, opacity=None, keep_proportion=True, rotate=0, oc=0)

(New in version 1.16.18)

PDF only: Write the text of one or more TextWriter ojects to the page.

  • rect (rect_like) – where to place the text. If omitted, the rectangle union of the text writers is used.
  • writers (sequence) – a non-empty tuple / list of TextWriter objects or a single TextWriter.
  • opacity (float) – set transparency, overwrites resp. value in the text writers.
  • color (sequ) – set the text color, overwrites resp. value in the text writers.
  • overlay (bool) – put the text in foreground or background.
  • keep_proportion (bool) – maintain the aspect ratio.
  • rotate (float) – rotate the text by an arbitrary angle.
  • oc (int) – (new in v1.18.4) the xref of an OCG or OCMD.


Parameters overlay, keep_proportion, rotate and oc have the same meaning as in Page.show_pdf_page().

insert_text(point, text, fontsize=11, fontname="helv", fontfile=None, idx=0, color=None, fill=None, render_mode=0, border_width=1, encoding=TEXT_ENCODING_LATIN, rotate=0, morph=None, stroke_opacity=1, fill_opacity=1, overlay=True, oc=0)

(Changed in v1.18.4)

PDF only: Insert text starting at point_like point. See Shape.insert_text().

insert_textbox(rect, buffer, fontsize=11, fontname="helv", fontfile=None, idx=0, color=None, fill=None, render_mode=0, border_width=1, encoding=TEXT_ENCODING_LATIN, expandtabs=8, align=TEXT_ALIGN_LEFT, charwidths=None, rotate=0, morph=None, stroke_opacity=1, fill_opacity=1, oc=0, overlay=True)

(Changed in v1.18.4)

PDF only: Insert text into the specified rect_like rect. See Shape.insert_textbox().

draw_line(p1, p2, color=None, width=1, dashes=None, lineCap=0, lineJoin=0, overlay=True, morph=None, stroke_opacity=1, fill_opacity=1, oc=0)

(Changed in v1.18.4)

PDF only: Draw a line from p1 to p2 (point_like s). See Shape.draw_line().

draw_zigzag(p1, p2, breadth=2, color=None, width=1, dashes=None, lineCap=0, lineJoin=0, overlay=True, morph=None, stroke_opacity=1, fill_opacity=1, oc=0)

(Changed in v1.18.4)

PDF only: Draw a zigzag line from p1 to p2 (point_like s). See Shape.draw_zigzag().

draw_squiggle(p1, p2, breadth=2, color=None, width=1, dashes=None, lineCap=0, lineJoin=0, overlay=True, morph=None, stroke_opacity=1, fill_opacity=1, oc=0)

(Changed in v1.18.4)

PDF only: Draw a squiggly (wavy, undulated) line from p1 to p2 (point_like s). See Shape.draw_squiggle().

draw_circle(center, radius, color=None, fill=None, width=1, dashes=None, lineCap=0, lineJoin=0, overlay=True, morph=None, stroke_opacity=1, fill_opacity=1, oc=0)

(Changed in v1.18.4)

PDF only: Draw a circle around center (point_like) with a radius of radius. See Shape.draw_circle().

draw_oval(quad, color=None, fill=None, width=1, dashes=None, lineCap=0, lineJoin=0, overlay=True, morph=None, stroke_opacity=1, fill_opacity=1, oc=0)

(Changed in v1.18.4)

PDF only: Draw an oval (ellipse) within the given rect_like or quad_like. See Shape.draw_oval().

draw_sector(center, point, angle, color=None, fill=None, width=1, dashes=None, lineCap=0, lineJoin=0, fullSector=True, overlay=True, closePath=False, morph=None, stroke_opacity=1, fill_opacity=1, oc=0)

(Changed in v1.18.4)

PDF only: Draw a circular sector, optionally connecting the arc to the circle’s center (like a piece of pie). See Shape.draw_sector().

draw_polyline(points, color=None, fill=None, width=1, dashes=None, lineCap=0, lineJoin=0, overlay=True, closePath=False, morph=None, stroke_opacity=1, fill_opacity=1, oc=0)

(Changed in v1.18.4)

PDF only: Draw several connected lines defined by a sequence of point_like s. See Shape.draw_polyline().

draw_bezier(p1, p2, p3, p4, color=None, fill=None, width=1, dashes=None, lineCap=0, lineJoin=0, overlay=True, closePath=False, morph=None, stroke_opacity=1, fill_opacity=1, oc=0)

(Changed in v1.18.4)

PDF only: Draw a cubic Bézier curve from p1 to p4 with the control points p2 and p3 (all are point_like s). See Shape.draw_bezier().

draw_curve(p1, p2, p3, color=None, fill=None, width=1, dashes=None, lineCap=0, lineJoin=0, overlay=True, closePath=False, morph=None, stroke_opacity=1, fill_opacity=1, oc=0)

(Changed in v1.18.4)

PDF only: This is a special case of draw_bezier(). See Shape.draw_curve().

draw_rect(rect, color=None, fill=None, width=1, dashes=None, lineCap=0, lineJoin=0, overlay=True, morph=None, stroke_opacity=1, fill_opacity=1, oc=0)

(Changed in v1.18.4)

PDF only: Draw a rectangle. See Shape.draw_rect().


An efficient way to background-color a PDF page with the old Python paper color is

>>> col = fitz.utils.getColor("py_color")
>>> page.draw_rect(page.rect, color=col, fill=col, overlay=False)
draw_quad(quad, color=None, fill=None, width=1, dashes=None, lineCap=0, lineJoin=0, overlay=True, morph=None, stroke_opacity=1, fill_opacity=1, oc=0)

(Changed in v1.18.4)

PDF only: Draw a quadrilateral. See Shape.draw_quad().

insert_font(fontname="helv", fontfile=None, fontbuffer=None, set_simple=False, encoding=TEXT_ENCODING_LATIN)

PDF only: Add a new font to be used by text output methods and return its xref. If not already present in the file, the font definition will be added. Supported are the built-in Base14_Fonts and the CJK fonts via “reserved” fontnames. Fonts can also be provided as a file path or a memory area containing the image of a font file.

Parameters:fontname (str) – The name by which this font shall be referenced when outputting text on this page. In general, you have a “free” choice here (but consult the Adobe PDF References, page 16, section 7.3.5 for a formal description of building legal PDF names). However, if it matches one of the Base14_Fonts or one of the CJK fonts, fontfile and fontbuffer are ignored.

In other words, you cannot insert a font via fontfile / fontbuffer and also give it a reserved fontname.


A reserved fontname can be specified in any mixture of upper or lower case and still match the right built-in font definition: fontnames “helv”, “Helv”, “HELV”, “Helvetica”, etc. all lead to the same font definition “Helvetica”. But from a Page perspective, these are different references. You can exploit this fact when using different encoding variants (Latin, Greek, Cyrillic) of the same font on a page.

  • fontfile (str) – a path to a font file. If used, fontname must be different from all reserved names.
  • fontbuffer (bytes/bytearray) – the memory image of a font file. If used, fontname must be different from all reserved names. This parameter would typically be used with Font.buffer for fonts supported / available via Font.
  • set_simple (int) – applicable for fontfile / fontbuffer cases only: enforce treatment as a “simple” font, i.e. one that only uses character codes up to 255.
  • encoding (int) – applicable for the “Helvetica”, “Courier” and “Times” sets of Base14_Fonts only. Select one of the available encodings Latin (0), Cyrillic (2) or Greek (1). Only use the default (0 = Latin) for “Symbol” and “ZapfDingBats”.



the xref of the installed font.


Built-in fonts will not lead to the inclusion of a font file. So the resulting PDF file will remain small. However, your PDF viewer software is responsible for generating an appropriate appearance – and there exist differences on whether or how each one of them does this. This is especially true for the CJK fonts. But also Symbol and ZapfDingbats are incorrectly handled in some cases. Following are the Font Names and their correspondingly installed Base Font names:

Base-14 Fonts [1]

Font Name Installed Base Font Comments
helv Helvetica normal
heit Helvetica-Oblique italic
hebo Helvetica-Bold bold
hebi Helvetica-BoldOblique bold-italic
cour Courier normal
coit Courier-Oblique italic
cobo Courier-Bold bold
cobi Courier-BoldOblique bold-italic
tiro Times-Roman normal
tiit Times-Italic italic
tibo Times-Bold bold
tibi Times-BoldItalic bold-italic
symb Symbol [3]
zadb ZapfDingbats [3]

CJK Fonts [2] (China, Japan, Korea)

Font Name Installed Base Font Comments
china-s Heiti simplified Chinese
china-ss Song simplified Chinese (serif)
china-t Fangti traditional Chinese
china-ts Ming traditional Chinese (serif)
japan Gothic Japanese
japan-s Mincho Japanese (serif)
korea Dotum Korean
korea-s Batang Korean (serif)
insert_image(rect, filename=None, pixmap=None, stream=None, mask=None, rotate=0, alpha=-1, oc=0, xref=0, keep_proportion=True, overlay=True)

PDF only: Put an image inside the given rectangle. The image may already exist in the PDF or be taken from a pixmap, a file, or a memory area.

  • Changed in version 1.14.1: By default, the image keeps its aspect ratio.
  • Changed in version 1.18.13: Allow providing the image as the xref of an existing one.
  • rect (rect_like) –

    where to put the image. Must be finite and not empty.

    (Changed in v1.17.6) No longer needs to have a non-empty intersection with the page’s Page.cropbox [5].

    (Changed in version 1.14.13) The image is now always placed centered in the rectangle, i.e. the centers of image and rectangle are equal.

  • filename (str) – name of an image file (all formats supported by MuPDF – see Supported Input Image Formats).
  • stream (bytes,bytearray,io.BytesIO) –

    image in memory (all formats supported by MuPDF – see Supported Input Image Formats).

    Changed in version 1.14.13: io.BytesIO is now also supported.

  • pixmap (Pixmap) – a pixmap containing the image.
  • mask (bytes,bytearray,io.BytesIO) – (new in version v1.18.1) image in memory – to be used as image mask (alpha values) for the base image. When specified, the base image must be provided as a filename or a stream – and must not be an image that already has a mask.
  • xref (int) – (New in v1.18.13) the xref of an image already present in the PDF. If given, parameters filename, pixmap, stream, alpha and mask are ignored. The page will simply receive a reference to the exsting image.
  • alpha (int) – (Changed in v1.19.3) deprecated. No longer needed – ignored when given.
  • rotate (int) – (new in version v1.14.11) rotate the image. Must be an integer multiple of 90 degrees. If you need a rotation by an arbitrary angle, consider converting the image to a PDF (Document.convert_to_pdf()) first and then use Page.show_pdf_page() instead.
  • oc (int) – (new in v1.18.3) (xref) make image visibility dependent on this OCG or OCMD. Ignored after the first of multiple insertions. The property is stored with the generated PDF image object and therefore controls the image’s visibility throughout the PDF.
  • keep_proportion (bool) – (new in version v1.14.11) maintain the aspect ratio of the image.

For a description of overlay see Common Parameters.

Changed in v1.18.13: Return xref of stored image.

Return type:int
Returns:The xref of the embedded image. This can be used as the xref argument for very significant performance boosts, if the image is inserted again.

This example puts the same image on every page of a document:

>>> doc =
>>> rect = fitz.Rect(0, 0, 50, 50)       # put thumbnail in upper left corner
>>> img = open("some.jpg", "rb").read()  # an image file
>>> img_xref = 0                         # first execution embeds the image
>>> for page in doc:
      img_xref = page.insert_image(rect, stream=img,
                 xref=img_xref,  2nd time reuses existing image


  1. The method detects multiple insertions of the same image (like in above example) and will store its data only on the first execution. This is even true, if using the default xref=0.
  2. The method cannot detect if the same image had already been part of the file before opening it.
  3. You can use this method to provide a background or foreground image for the page, like a copyright or a watermark. Please remember, that watermarks require a transparent image if put in foreground …
  4. The image may be inserted uncompressed, e.g. if a Pixmap is used or if the image has an alpha channel. Therefore, consider using deflate=True when saving the file. In addition, there exist effective ways to control the image size – even if transparency comes into play. Have a look at this section of the documentation.
  5. The image is stored in the PDF in its original quality. This may be much better than what you ever need for your display. Consider decreasing the image size before insertion – e.g. by using the pixmap option and then shrinking it or scaling it down (see Pixmap chapter). The PIL method Image.thumbnail() can also be used for that purpose. The file size savings can be very significant.
  6. Another efficient way to display the same image on multiple pages is another method: show_pdf_page(). Consult Document.convert_to_pdf() for how to obtain intermediary PDFs usable for that method. Demo script implements a fairly complete approach.
get_text(opt, *, clip=None, flags=None, textpage=None, sort=False)
  • Changed in v1.19.0: added textpage parameter
  • Changed in v1.19.1: added sort parameter

Retrieves the content of a page in a variety of formats. This is a wrapper for TextPage methods by choosing the output option as follows:

  • opt (str) –

    A string indicating the requested format, one of the above. A mixture of upper and lower case is supported.

    Changed in version 1.16.3 Values “words” and “blocks” are now also accepted.

  • clip (rect-like) – (new in v1.17.7) restrict extracted text to this rectangle. If None, the full page is taken. Has no effect for options “html”, “xhtml” and “xml”.
  • flags (int) – (new in version 1.16.2) indicator bits to control whether to include images or how text should be handled with respect to white spaces and ligatures. See Text Extraction Flags for available indicators and Text Extraction Flags Defaults for default settings.
  • textpage – (new in v1.19.0) use a previously created TextPage. This reduces execution time very significantly: by more than 50% and up to 95%, depending on the extraction option. If specified, the ‘flags’ and ‘clip’ arguments are ignored, because they are textpage only properties. If omitted, a new, temporary textpage will be created.
  • sort (bool) – (new in v1.19.1) sort the output by vertical, then horizontal coordinates. In many cases, this should suffice to generate a “natural” reading order. Has no effect on (X)HTML and XML. Output option “words” sorts by (y1, x0) of the words’ bboxes. Similar is true for “blocks”, “dict”, “json”, “rawdict”, “rawjson”: they all are sorted by (y1, x0) of the resp. block bbox. If specified for “text”, then internally “blocks” is used.
Return type:

str, list, dict


The page’s content as a string, a list or a dictionary. Refer to the corresponding TextPage method for details.


  1. You can use this method as a document conversion tool from any supported document type (not only PDF!) to one of TEXT, HTML, XHTML or XML documents.
  2. The inclusion of text via the clip parameter is decided on a by-character level: (changed in v1.18.2) a character becomes part of the output, if its bbox is contained in clip. This deviates from the algorithm used in redaction annotations: a character will be removed if its bbox intersects any redaction annotation.
get_textbox(rect, textpage=None)
  • New in v1.17.7
  • Changed in v1.19.0: add textpage parameter

Retrieve the text contained in a rectangle.

  • rect (rect-like) – rect-like.
  • textpage – a TextPage to use. If omitted, a new, temporary textpage will be created.

a string with interspersed linebreaks where necessary. Changed in v1.19.0: It is based on dedicated code. A tyical use is checking the result of Page.search_for():

>>> rl = page.search_for("currency:")
>>> page.get_textbox(rl[0])

get_textpage(clip=None, flags=3)

(New in version 1.16.5)

Create a TextPage for the page.

  • flags (in) – indicator bits controlling the content available for subsequent text extractions and searches – see the parameter of Page.get_text().
  • clip (rect-like) – (new in v1.17.7) restrict extracted text to this area.


get_textpage_ocr(flags=3, language="eng", dpi=72, full=False)
  • New in v.1.19.0
  • Changed in v1.19.1: support full and partial OCRing a page.

Create a TextPage for the page that includes OCRed text. MuPDF will invoke Tesseract-OCR if this method is used. Otherwise this is a normal TextPage object.

  • flags (in) – indicator bits controlling the content available for subsequent test extractions and searches – see the parameter of Page.get_text().
  • language (str) – the expected language(s). Use “+”-separated values if multiple languages are expected, “eng+spa” for English and Spanish.
  • dpi (int) – the desired resolution in dots per inch. Influences recognition quality (and execution time).
  • full (bool) – whether to OCR the full page, or just the displayed images.


This method does not support a clip parameter – OCR will always happen for the complete page rectangle.

Returns:a TextPage. Excution may be significantly longer than Page.get_textpage().

For a full page OCR, all text will have the font “GlyphlessFont” from Tesseract. In case of partial OCR, normal text will keep its properties, and only text coming from images will have the GlyphlessFont.


OCRed text is only available to PyMuPDF’s text extractions and searches if their textpage parameter specifies the output of this method.

This Jupyter notebook walks through an example for using OCR textpages.

  • New in v1.18.0
  • Changed in v1.18.17
  • Changed in v1.19.0: add “seqno” key, remove “clippings” key
  • Changed in v1.19.1: “color” / “fill” keys now always are either are RGB tuples or None. This resolves issues caused by exotic colorspaces.
  • Changed in v1.19.2: add an indicator for the “orientation” of the area covered by an “re” item.

Return the draw commands of the page. These are instructions which draw lines, rectangles, quadruples or curves, including properties like colors, transparency, line width and dashing, etc.

Returns:a list of dictionaries. Each dictionary item contains one or more single draw commands belonging together: they have the same properties (colors, dashing, etc.). This is called a “path” in PDF, but the method works for all document types.

The path dictionary has been designed to be compatible with class Shape. There are the following keys:

Key Value
closePath Same as the parameter in Shape.
color Stroke color (see Shape).
dashes Dashed line specification (see Shape).
even_odd Fill colors of area overlaps – same as the parameter in Shape.
fill Fill color (see Shape).
items List of draw commands: lines, rectangles, quads or curves.
lineCap Number 3-tuple, use its max value on output with Shape.
lineJoin Same as the parameter in Shape.
fill_opacity (new in v1.18.17) fill color transparency (see Shape).
stroke_opacity (new in v1.18.17) stroke color transparency (see Shape).
rect Page area covered by this path. Information only.
seqno (new in v1.19.0) command number when building page appearance
type (new in v1.18.17) type of this path.
width Stroke line width (see Shape).
  • (Changed in v1.18.17) Key "opacity" has been replaced by the new keys "fill_opacity" and "stroke_opacity". This is now compatible with the corresponding parameters of Shape.finish().

Key "type" takes one of the following values:

  • “f” – this is a fill-only path. Only key-values relevant for this operation have a meaning, irrelevant ones have been added with default values for backward compatibility: "color", "lineCap", "lineJoin", "width", "closePath", "dashes" and should be ignored.
  • “s” – this is a stroke-only path. Similar to previous, key "fill" is present with value None.
  • “fs” – this is a path performing combined fill and stroke operations.

Each item in path["items"] is one of the following:

  • ("l", p1, p2) - a line from p1 to p2 (Point objects).
  • ("c", p1, p2, p3, p4) - cubic Bézier curve from p1 to p4 (p2 and p3 are the control points). All objects are of type Point.
  • ("re", rect, orientation) - a Rect. Changed in v1.18.17: Multiple rectangles within the same path are now detected. Changed in v1.19.2: added integer orientation which is 1 resp. -1 indicating whether the enclosed area is rotated left (1 = anti-clockwise), or resp. right [7].
  • ("qu", quad) - a Quad. New in v1.18.17, changed in v1.19.2: 3 or 4 consecutive lines are detected to actually represent a Quad.


Starting with v1.19.2, quads and rectangles are reliably recognized as such.

Using class Shape, you should be able to recreate the original drawings on a separate (PDF) page with high fidelity, but see the following comments on restrictions. A coding draft can be found in section “Extractings Drawings” of chapter Collection of Recipes.


  • The visual appearance of a page may have been designed in a very complex way. For example in PDF, layers (Optional Content Groups) can control the visibility of items (drawings and other objects) depending on whatever condition: for example showing or suppressing a watermark depending on the current output device (screen, paper, …), or option-based inclusion / omission of details in a technical document, and so on. Effects like these are ignored by the method – it will unconditionally return all paths.
  • When a viewer software builds a page’s appearance, it will sequentially walk through a list of commands (in PDF, those are stored in the /Contents object), containing instructions like “draw this path, show this image, paint this text, etc.”. The key "seqno" (new in v1.19.0) is the command number, that draws this path. You can use it to determine if objects cover other objects on the page. For example, the rectangle of a “fill” path will cover objects drawn earlier – i.e. having a smaller "seqno" – if the rectangles overlap. Please also see Page.get_bboxlog() and Page.get_texttrace().


The method is now based on the output of Page.get_cdrawings() – which is faster, but requires somewhat more attention processing its output.

  • New in v1.18.17
  • Changed in v1.19.0: removed “clippings” key, added “seqno” key.
  • Changed in v1.19.1: always generate RGB color tuples.

Extract the drawing paths on the page. Apart from following technical differences, functionally equivalent to Page.get_drawings(), but much faster (factor 3 or more):


If performance is a concern (e.g. because your page has tens of thousands of drawings), consider using this method: Compared to versions earlier than 1.18.17, you should see much shorter response times. We have seen pages that required 2 seconds then, now only need 200 ms with this method.


PDF only: Return a list of fonts referenced by the page. Wrapper for Document.get_page_fonts().


PDF only: Return a list of images referenced by the page. Wrapper for Document.get_page_images().

get_image_info(hashes=False, xrefs=False)
  • New in v1.18.11
  • Changed in v1.18.13: added image MD5 hashcode computation and xref search.

Return a list of meta information dictionaries for all images shown on the page. This works for all document types. Technically, this is a subset of the dictionary output of Page.get_text(): the image binary content and any text on the page are ignored.

  • hashes (bool) – New in v1.18.13: Compute the MD5 hashcode for each encountered image, which allows identifying image duplicates. This adds the key "digest" to the output, whose value is a 16 byte bytes object.
  • xrefs (bool) – New in v1.18.13: PDF only. Try to find the xref for each image. Implies hashes=True. Adds the "xref" key to the dictionary. If not found, the value is 0, which means, the image is either “inline” or otherwise undetectable. Please note that this option has an extended response time, because the MD5 hashcode will be computed at least two times for each image with an xref.
Return type:



A list of dictionaries. This includes information for exactly those images, that are shown on the page – including “inline images”. In contrast to images included in Page.get_text(), image binary content is not loaded, which drastically reduces memory usage. The dictionary layout is similar to that of image blocks in page.get_text("dict").

Key Value
number block number (int)
bbox image bbox on page, rect_like
width original image width (int)
height original image height (int)
cs-name colorspace name (str)
colorspace colorspace.n (int)
xres resolution in x-direction (int)
yres resolution in y-direction (int)
bpc bits per component (int)
size storage occupied by image (int)
digest MD5 hashcode (bytes), if hashes is true
xref image xref or 0, if xrefs is true
transform matrix transforming image rect to bbox, matrix_like

Multiple occurrences of the same image are always reported. You can detect duplicates by comparing their digest values.


PDF only: Return a list of Form XObjects referenced by the page. Wrapper for Document.get_page_xobjects().

get_image_rects(item, transform=False)

New in v1.18.13

PDF only: Return boundary boxes and transformation matrices of an embedded image. This is an improved version of Page.get_image_bbox() with the following differences:

  • There is no restriction on how the image is invoked (by the page or one of its Form XObjects). The result is always complete and correct.
  • The result is a list of Rect or (Rect, Matrix) objects – depending on transform. Each list item represents one location of the image on the page. Multiple occurrences might not be detectable by Page.get_image_bbox().
  • The method invokes Page.get_image_info() with xrefs=True and therefore has a noticeably longer response time than Page.get_image_bbox().
  • item (list,str,int) – an item of the list Page.get_images(), or the reference name entry of such an item (item[7]), or the image xref.
  • transform (bool) – also return the matrix used to transform the image rectangle to the bbox on the page. If true, then tuples (bbox, matrix) are returned.
Return type:



Boundary boxes and respective transformation matrices for each image occurrence on the page. If the item is not on the page, an empty list [] is returned.

get_image_bbox(item, transform=False)

Changed in v1.18.11

PDF only: Return boundary box and transformation matrix of an embedded image.

Changed in v1.17.0:

  • The page’s contents are no longer modified by this method.
  • item (list,str) – an item of the list Page.get_images() with full=True specified, or the reference name entry of such an item, which is item[-3] (or item[7] respectively).
  • transform (bool) – (new in v1.18.11) also return the matrix used to transform the image rectangle to the bbox on the page. Default is just the bbox. If true, then a tuple (bbox, matrix) is returned.
Return type:

Rect or (Rect, Matrix)


the boundary box of the image – optionally also its transformation matrix.

  • (Changed in v1.16.7) – If the page in fact does not display this image, an infinite rectangle is returned now. In previous versions, an exception was raised. Formally invalid parameters still raise exceptions.
  • (Changed in v1.17.0) – Only images referenced directly by the page are considered. This means that images occurring in embedded PDF pages are ignored and an exception is raised.
  • (Changed in v1.18.5) – Removed the restriction introduced in v1.17.0: any item of the page’s image list may be specified.
  • (Changed in v1.18.11) – Partially re-instated a restriction: only those images are considered, that are either directly referenced by the page or by a Form XObject directly referenced by the page.
  • (Changed in v1.18.11) – Optionally also return the transformation matrix together with the bbox as the tuple (bbox, transform).


  1. Be aware that Page.get_images() may contain “dead” entries i.e. images, which the page does not display. This is no error, but intended by the PDF creator. No exception will be raised in this case, but an infinite rectangle is returned. You can avoid this from happening by executing Page.clean_contents() before this method.
  2. The image’s “transformation matrix” is defined as the matrix, for which the expression bbox / transform == fitz.Rect(0, 0, 1, 1) is true, lookup details here: Image Transformation Matrix.
get_svg_image(matrix=fitz.Identity, text_as_path=True)
Create an SVG image from the page. Only full page images are currently supported.
  • matrix (matrix_like) – a matrix, default is Identity.
  • text_as_path (bool) – (new in v1.17.5) – controls how text is represented. True outputs each character as a series of elementary draw commands, which leads to a more precise text display in browsers, but a very much larger output for text-oriented pages. Display quality for False relies on the presence of the referenced fonts on the current system. For missing fonts, the internet browser will fall back to some default – leading to unpleasant appearances. Choose False if you want to parse the text of the SVG.

a UTF-8 encoded string that contains the image. Because SVG has XML syntax it can be saved in a text file with extension .svg.

get_pixmap(*, matrix=fitz.Identity, dpi=None, colorspace=fitz.csRGB, clip=None, alpha=False, annots=True)
  • Changed in v1.19.2: added support of parameter dpi.

Create a pixmap from the page. This is probably the most often used method to create a Pixmap.

All parameters are keyword-only.

  • matrix (matrix_like) – default is Identity.
  • dpi (int) – (new in v1.19.2) desired resolution in x and y direction. If not None, the "matrix" parameter is ignored.
  • colorspace (str or Colorspace) – The desired colorspace, one of “GRAY”, “RGB” or “CMYK” (case insensitive). Or specify a Colorspace, ie. one of the predefined ones: csGRAY, csRGB or csCMYK.
  • clip (irect_like) – restrict rendering to the intersection of this area with the page’s rectangle.
  • alpha (bool) –

    whether to add an alpha channel. Always accept the default False if you do not really need transparency. This will save a lot of memory (25% in case of RGB … and pixmaps are typically large!), and also processing time. Also note an important difference in how the image will be rendered: with True the pixmap’s samples area will be pre-cleared with 0x00. This results in transparent areas where the page is empty. With False the pixmap’s samples will be pre-cleared with 0xff. This results in white where the page has nothing to show.

    Changed in version 1.14.17
    The default alpha value is now False.
    • Generated with alpha=True
    • Generated with alpha=False
  • annots (bool) – (new in vrsion 1.16.0) whether to also render annotations or to suppress them. You can create pixmaps for annotations separately.
Return type:



Pixmap of the page. For fine-controlling the generated image, the by far most important parameter is matrix. E.g. you can increase or decrease the image resolution by using Matrix(xzoom, yzoom). If zoom > 1, you will get a higher resolution: zoom=2 will double the number of pixels in that direction and thus generate a 2 times larger image. Non-positive values will flip horizontally, resp. vertically. Similarly, matrices also let you rotate or shear, and you can combine effects via e.g. matrix multiplication. See the Matrix section to learn more.


The method will respect any page rotation and will not exceed the intersection of clip and Page.cropbox. If you need the page’s mediabox (and if this is a different rectangle), you can use a snippet like the following to achieve this:

In [1]: import fitz
In [2]:"demo1.pdf")
In [3]: page=doc[0]
In [4]: rotation = page.rotation
In [5]: cropbox = page.cropbox
In [6]: page.set_cropbox(page.mediabox)
In [7]: page.set_rotation(0)
In [8]: pix = page.get_pixmap()
In [9]: page.set_cropbox(cropbox)
In [10]: if rotation != 0:
   ...:     page.set_rotation(rotation)
In [11]:

(New in version 1.16.10)

PDF only: return a list of the names of annotations, widgets and links. Technically, these are the /NM values of every PDF object found in the page’s /Annots array.

Return type:list

(New in version 1.17.1)

PDF only: return a list of the :data`xref` numbers of annotations, widgets and links – technically of all entries found in the page’s /Annots array.

Return type:list
Returns:a list of items (xref, type) where type is the annotation type. Use the type to tell apart links, fields and annotations, see Annotation Types.

(New in version 1.17.1)

PDF only: return the annotation identified by ident. This may be its unique name (PDF /NM key), or its xref.

Parameters:ident (str,int) – the annotation name or xref.
Return type:Annot
Returns:the annotation or None.


Methods Page.annot_names(), Page.annots_xrefs() provide lists of names or xrefs, respectively, from where an item may be picked and loaded via this method.

Return the first link on a page. Synonym of property first_link.

Return type:Link
Returns:first link on the page (or None).

PDF only: Set the rotation of the page.

Parameters:rotate (int) – An integer specifying the required rotation in degrees. Must be an integer multiple of 90. Values will be converted to one of 0, 90, 180, 270.
show_pdf_page(rect, docsrc, pno=0, keep_proportion=True, overlay=True, oc=0, rotate=0, clip=None)

PDF only: Display a page of another PDF as a vector image (otherwise similar to Page.insert_image()). This is a multi-purpose method. For example, you can use it to

  • create “n-up” versions of existing PDF files, combining several input pages into one output page (see example,
  • create “posterized” PDF files, i.e. every input page is split up in parts which each create a separate output page (see,
  • include PDF-based vector images like company logos, watermarks, etc., see, which puts an SVG-based logo on each page (requires additional packages to deal with SVG-to-PDF conversions).
Changed in version 1.14.11
Parameter reuse_xref has been deprecated.
  • rect (rect_like) –

    where to place the image on current page. Must be finite and its intersection with the page must not be empty.

    Changed in version 1.14.11
    Position the source rectangle centered in this rectangle.
  • docsrc (Document) – source PDF document containing the page. Must be a different document object, but may be the same file.
  • pno (int) – page number (0-based, in -∞ < pno < docsrc.page_count) to be shown.
  • keep_proportion (bool) – whether to maintain the width-height-ratio (default). If false, all 4 corners are always positioned on the border of the target rectangle – whatever the rotation value. In general, this will deliver distorted and /or non-rectangular images.
  • overlay (bool) – put image in foreground (default) or background.
  • oc (int) – (new in v1.18.3) (xref) make visibility dependent on this OCG (optional content group).
  • rotate (float) – (new in version 1.14.10) show the source rectangle rotated by some angle. Changed in version 1.14.11: Any angle is now supported.
  • clip (rect_like) – choose which part of the source page to show. Default is the full page, else must be finite and its intersection with the source page must not be empty.


In contrast to method Document.insert_pdf(), this method does not copy annotations, widgets or links, so these are not included in the target [6]. But all its other resources (text, images, fonts, etc.) will be imported into the current PDF. They will therefore appear in text extractions and in get_fonts() and get_images() lists – even if they are not contained in the visible area given by clip.

Example: Show the same source page, rotated by 90 and by -90 degrees:

>>> doc =  # new empty PDF
>>> page=doc.new_page()  # new page in A4 format
>>> # upper half page
>>> r1 = fitz.Rect(0, 0, page.rect.width, page.rect.height/2)
>>> # lower half page
>>> r2 = r1 + (0, page.rect.height/2, 0, page.rect.height/2)
>>> src ="PyMuPDF.pdf")  # show page 0 of this
>>> page.show_pdf_page(r1, src, 0, rotate=90)
>>> page.show_pdf_page(r2, src, 0, rotate=-90)

PDF only: Create a new Shape object for the page.

Return type:Shape
Returns:a new Shape to use for compound drawings. See description there.
search_for(needle, clip=clip, quads=False, flags=TEXT_DEHYPHENATE | TEXT_PRESERVE_WHITESPACE | TEXT_PRESERVE_LIGATURES, textpage=None)
  • Changed in v1.18.2
  • Changed in v1.19.0: added textpage parameter

Search for needle on a page. Wrapper for

  • needle (str) – Text to search for. May contain spaces. Upper / lower case is ignored, but only works for ASCII characters: For example, “COMPÉTENCES” will not be found if needle is “compétences” – “compÉtences” however will. Similar is true for German umlauts and the like.
  • clip (rect_like) – (New in v1.18.2) only search within this area.
  • quads (bool) – Return object type Quad instead of Rect.
  • flags (int) – Control the data extracted by the underlying TextPage. By default, ligatures and white spaces are kept, and hyphenation is detected.
  • textpage – (new in v1.19.0) use a previously created TextPage. This reduces execution time significantly. If specified, the ‘flags’ and ‘clip’ arguments are ignored. If omitted, a temporary textpage will be created.
Return type:



A list of Rect or Quad objects, each of which – normally! – surrounds one occurrence of needle. However: if parts of needle occur on more than one line, then a separate item is generated for each these parts. So, if needle = "search string", two rectangles may be generated.

Changes in v1.18.2:

  • There no longer is a limit on the list length (removal of the hit_max parameter).
  • If a word is hyphenated at a line break, it will still be found. E.g. the needle “method” will be found even if hyphenated as “meth-od” at a line break, and two rectangles will be returned: one surrounding “meth” (without the hyphen) and another one surrounding “od”.


The method supports multi-line text marker annotations: you can use the full returned list as one single parameter for creating the annotation.


  • There is a tricky aspect: the search logic regards contiguous multiple occurrences of needle as one: assuming needle is “abc”, and the page contains “abc” and “abcabc”, then only two rectangles will be returned, one for “abc”, and a second one for “abcabc”.
  • You can always use Page.get_textbox() to check what text actually is being surrounded by each rectangle.


A feature repeatedly asked for is supporting regular expressions when specifying the "needle" string: There is no way to do this. If you need something in that direction, first extract text in the desired format and then subselect the result by matching with some regex pattern. Here is an example for matching words:

>>> pattern = re.compile(r"...")  # the regex pattern
>>> words = page.get_text("words")  # extract words on page
>>> matches = [w for w in words if[4])]

The matches list will contain the words matching the given pattern. In the same way you can select span["text"] from the output of page.get_text("dict").

  • Changed in v1.19.4: remove all other rectangle definitions.

PDF only: (New in v1.16.13) Change the physical page dimension by setting mediabox in the page’s object definition.

Parameters:r (rect-like) – the new mediabox value.


This method also removes the page’s other (optional) rectangles (cropbox, ArtBox, TrimBox and Bleedbox) to prevent inconsistent situations. This will cause those to assume their default values.


For non-empty pages this may have undesired effects, because the location of all content depends on this value and will therefore change position or even disappear.


PDF only: change the visible part of the page.

Parameters:r (rect_like) – the new visible area of the page. Note that this must be specified in unrotated coordinates, not empty, nor infinite and be completely contained in the Page.mediabox.

After execution (if the page is not rotated), Page.rect will equal this rectangle, but be shifted to the top-left position (0, 0) if necessary. Example session:

>>> page = doc.new_page()
>>> page.rect
fitz.Rect(0.0, 0.0, 595.0, 842.0)
>>> page.cropbox  # cropbox and mediabox still equal
fitz.Rect(0.0, 0.0, 595.0, 842.0)
>>> # now set cropbox to a part of the page
>>> page.set_cropbox(fitz.Rect(100, 100, 400, 400))
>>> # this will also change the "rect" property:
>>> page.rect
fitz.Rect(0.0, 0.0, 300.0, 300.0)
>>> # but mediabox remains unaffected
>>> page.mediabox
fitz.Rect(0.0, 0.0, 595.0, 842.0)
>>> # revert CropBox change
>>> # either set it to MediaBox
>>> page.set_cropbox(page.mediabox)
>>> # or 'refresh' MediaBox: will remove all other rectangles
>>> page.set_mediabox(page.mediabox)
  • New in v1.19.4

PDF only: Set the resp. rectangle in the page object. For the meaning of these objects see Adobe PDF References, page 77. Parameter and restrictions are the same as for Page.set_cropbox().


Contains the rotation of the page in degrees (always 0 for non-PDF types).


Contains the top-left point of the page’s /CropBox for a PDF, otherwise Point(0, 0).


The page’s /CropBox for a PDF. Always the unrotated page rectangle is returned. For a non-PDF this will always equal the page rectangle.


In PDF, the relationship between /MediaBox, /CropBox and page rectangle may sometimes be confusing, please do lookup the glossary for MediaBox.


The page’s /ArtBox, /BleedBox, /TrimBox, respectively. If not provided, defaulting to Page.cropbox.


Contains the width and height of the page’s Page.mediabox for a PDF, otherwise the bottom-right coordinates of Page.rect.


The page’s mediabox for a PDF, otherwise Page.rect.



For most PDF documents and for all other document types, page.rect == page.cropbox == page.mediabox is true. However, for some PDFs the visible page is a true subset of mediabox. Also, if the page is rotated, its Page.rect may not equal Page.cropbox. In these cases the above attributes help to correctly locate page elements.


This matrix translates coordinates from the PDF space to the MuPDF space. For example, in PDF /Rect [x0 y0 x1 y1] the pair (x0, y0) specifies the bottom-left point of the rectangle – in contrast to MuPDF’s system, where (x0, y0) specify top-left. Multiplying the PDF coordinates with this matrix will deliver the (Py-) MuPDF rectangle version. Obviously, the inverse matrix will again yield the PDF rectangle.


These matrices may be used for dealing with rotated PDF pages. When adding / inserting anything to a PDF page, the coordinates of the unrotated page are always used. These matrices help translating between the two states. Example: if a page is rotated by 90 degrees – what would then be the coordinates of the top-left Point(0, 0) of an A4 page?

>>> page.set_rotation(90)  # rotate an ISO A4 page
>>> page.rect
Rect(0.0, 0.0, 842.0, 595.0)
>>> p = fitz.Point(0, 0)  # where did top-left point land?
>>> p * page.rotation_matrix
Point(842.0, 0.0)

Contains the first Link of a page (or None).


Contains the first Annot of a page (or None).


Contains the first Widget of a page (or None).


The page number.


The owning document object.


Contains the rectangle of the page. Same as result of Page.bound().


The page’s PDF xref. Zero if not a PDF.


Homologous Methods of Document and Page

This is an overview of homologous methods on the Document and on the Page level.

Document Level Page Level
Document.get_page_fonts(pno) Page.get_fonts()
Document.get_page_images(pno) Page.get_images()
Document.get_page_pixmap(pno, …) Page.get_pixmap()
Document.get_page_text(pno, …) Page.get_text()
Document.search_page_for(pno, …) Page.search_for()

The page number “pno” is a 0-based integer -∞ < pno < page_count.


Most document methods (left column) exist for convenience reasons, and are just wrappers for: Document[pno].<page method>. So they load and discard the page on each execution.

However, the first two methods work differently. They only need a page’s object definition statement - the page itself will not be loaded. So e.g. Page.get_fonts() is a wrapper the other way round and defined as follows: page.get_fonts == page.parent.get_page_fonts(page.number).


[1]If your existing code already uses the installed base name as a font reference (as it was supported by PyMuPDF versions earlier than 1.14), this will continue to work.
[2]Not all PDF reader software (including internet browsers and office software) display all of these fonts. And if they do, the difference between the serifed and the non-serifed version may hardly be noticable. But serifed and non-serifed versions lead to different installed base fonts, thus providing an option to be displayable with your specific PDF viewer.
[3](1, 2) Not all PDF readers display these fonts at all. Some others do, but use a wrong character spacing, etc.
[4](1, 2) You are generally free to choose any of the Annotation Icons in MuPDF you consider adequate.
[5]The previous algorithm caused images to be shrunk to this intersection. Now the image can be anywhere on Page.mediabox, potentially being invisible or only partially visible if the cropbox (representing the visible page part) is smaller.
[6]If you need to also see annotations or fields in the target page, you can try and convert the source PDF to another PDF using Document.convert_to_pdf(). The underlying MuPDF function of that method will convert these objects to normal page content. Then use Page.show_pdf_page() with the converted PDF page.
[7]In PDF, an area enclosed by some lines or curves can have a property called “orientation”. This is significant for switching on or off the fill color of that area when there exist multiple area overlaps - see discussion in method Shape.finish() using the “non-zero winding number” rule. While orientation of curves, quads, triangles and other shapes enclosed by lines always was detectable, this has been impossible for “re” (rectangle) items in the past. Adding the orientation parameter now delivers the missing information.